Will 100-pound salmon ever return to Elwha?

By Paul Gottlieb
Port Angeles, Washington (AP) May 2010

Tales of the Elwha River’s legendary 100-pound chinook salmon fueled the debate over tearing down the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams.

But when the 108-foot Elwha Dam and the 210-foot Glines Canyon Dam are no more, will the mystical big fish return, riding the same genetic makeup that pushed them to supposedly grow to such prodigious proportions so long ago?

And did supersize salmon even exist on the Elwha in the first place?

One thing is for certain: The tear-down debate over the dams is so 1990s.

Those walls of the two dams – bulwarks against salmon survival for nearly 100 years – will be gone by late 2014, more than two decades after their removal was mandated by the 1992 federal Elwha Act.

Bids on the project are due June 9, with dismantling slated to begin in late 2011 in the project estimated to cost $350 million.

By 2039, the river should be replenished to its pre-dam level with all five species of Pacific salmon – 400,000 spawning annually, up from the current, comparatively minuscule 3,000, according to the National Park Service, which is in charge of the project.

Since 1913 the Elwha Dam – built without fish passages, like the Glines Canyon Dam – has stood just 5 miles from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, fortress-like, impenetrable and deadly, blocking 65 miles of the nutrient-rich river to spawn-hungry salmon.

“The fish have been pounding their heads against it for 100 years trying to get upstream,” said river restoration project manager Brian Winter, a National Park Service fisheries biologist who has spent most of his professional life studying the Elwha River dams and their impact on fish.

There are no photos of the Elwha’s purported 100-pound salmon in the state historical archives or the records of the Clallam County Historical Society.

The Lower Elwha Klallam tribe, whose members have fished the Elwha for centuries, could not verify that a photo of an obviously large salmon being held by tribal member Ernie Sampson was of the 100-pound variety.

Still, salmon that size are more than a fairy tale, Winter said.

“They did indeed exist,” Winter said, pointing to historical accounts.

In 1790, Spanish explorer Manuel Quimper wrote that he bought “salmon of 100 pounds” from Native Americans in the Elwha River area, while the state Department of Fisheries 140 years later, in 1930, found “several males that would weigh 100 pounds each,” according to Bruce Brown, author of Mountain in the “Clouds: A Search for the Wild Salmon” (Simon and Schuster, 1981).

Francis Charles, Lower Elwha Klallam tribal chairwoman, was certain that 100-pounders plied the Elwha.

“I am 100 percent sure,” she said last week.

The big chinook, as heavy as bags of cement, were pulled from the Elwha River by tribal members who linked arms to land the fish, Charles said.

“They would have to hold on to one another to bring them to shore,” she said.

What made these salmon so prodigious?

For one thing, 100-pound salmon are known to exist in waters off Alaska, so they can thrive in the right conditions, Winter said.

Research indicates those conditions involve natural selection combined with the right environment, creating a genetic disposition toward large size, Winter said.


Before the dams blocked the Elwha, the river “contained many miles of ideal chinook spawning grounds, especially between Lost River and Long Creek,” Brown wrote.

“To reach these shady riffles, salmon had to climb through a series of narrowing canyons, climaxing at the Goblin’s Gate.”

Brown quotes the late Robert Masoulf of Peninsula College: “The strength of the rapids in this section of the river probably acted as a mechanism for the natural selection of larger fish.”

When they returned to spawn, they were larger, stronger, laid more eggs and produced salmon that were inclined, like the fish that produced them, to being bigger and stronger.

Olympic National Park fisheries biologist Pat Crain said the comparatively colder, snow-fed waters of the Elwha also produced stronger chinook and may have contributed to their ability to stay longer at sea.

Brown said that once the chinook spawned and left the Elwha, they returned larger because some likely stayed at sea for 12 or more years, a number that Winter said he trusted.

“We don’t know why they stay out there and feed longer so they become 100-pounders,” Winter added.

“We can’t pinpoint what it is that caused that life-history trait.”

Salmon retain a genetic memory, or imprint, of the “suite” of odors from the river, following those odors to spawn where they were produced, Winter said.

“The genetics that caused the 100-pounders are still there,” he added.

“The same environment that created the 100-pounders 100 years ago will be there for them to again become 100-pounders.”

While there are still 5 miles of unblocked habitat between the Elwha Dam and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the spawning conditions are less than ideal.

It consists of what was standing water heated by the sun that flows from Lake Mills behind Glines Canyon Dam, which is in the Olympic National Park, and Lake Aldwell behind Elwha Dam.

The water ends up at the 5-mile stretch where river ends and the Strait begins. It is 2 to 4 degrees warmer than in the days of supersized salmon.

In addition, today’s returning salmon don’t go through the natural-selection process that involved what 100 years ago was a difficult climb upstream in which only the strong survived, Winter said.

Chinook are not the only salmon expected to return to the Elwha in greater numbers.

Coho, steelhead pink, chum and sockeye also are expected to spawn in greater numbers in the main stem of the river and 30 miles of tributaries, Winter said.

Chinook and steelhead are both listed as threatened species, though the National Marine Fisheries Service is preparing a recovery plan for the species, Winter said.

By 2019, after an expected five-year moratorium on all fisheries, including tribal fisheries, ends for the Elwha, the river should have a fishery worth dropping a line in, Crain predicted.

Winter said the moratorium – which has not been announced yet – is meant to cover the period of dam removal “and a few years after that.”

Crain said earlier this month that the state, Olympic National Park and the Lower Elwha were preparing a joint statement about the moratorium.

After the five years, the group would decide when to lift the moratorium on each species of fish.

The goal is to have all salmon who return to the Elwha, including Chinook, be wild stock, not hatchery bred, Winter said.

“At that point, the hatcheries are out of the solution.”

So when can we expect to see 100-pound salmon again?

“No one can say how long it will take for that trait to be exhibited again,” Winter said.

“All we can say is the conditions for that life history trail should be available for 100-pounders to return again. As long as we give them access to the historic habitat, there’s nothing to prevent them from being hundred-pounders again.”